After all the complexities of grammar, let’s treat ourselves with a simple yet very useful lesson: words. Here we’ll cover basic adjectives (and their opposites)
and advanced verbs.
Before we proceed, I’ll introduce you to my understanding of basic and advanced in the context of vocabulary. A basic adjective is an adjective that conveys the idea of an abstract quality in its purest form, without any added shade of meaning. Typically it is very easy to find the opposite (equally basic) adjective to such adjectives. More advanced adjectives may be considered derived from the basic ones in terms of meaning. They may be more specific and therefore also more restrictive. Compare:
beautiful and picturesque
poor and deprived
big and immense
ugly and abominable
fat and obese
shy and timid
Students usually start off with the basic adjectives (as the ones on the left) when they study a foreign language and then their vocabulary gradually expands by adding the more advanced ones.
When it comes to verbs, I simply consider verbs like to go, to sing, to write, to eat, to see to be basic and the ones like to suggest, to agree, to prepare, to manage to be more advanced ones.
|svår||lätt, enkel||difficult||easy, simple|
* in Swedish, the same adjective lång is used to describe people (långa byxor, en lång pojke – long trousers, a tall boy)
Adjectives in green are highly irregular (i.e., they are suppletive, as in gammal – äldre- äldst), those in blue are moderately irregular (i.e., they add endings without the usual -a- vowel and/or their comparative and superlative forms involve change in the root vowel, as in ung – yngre – yngst).